SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: Utilizing smart materials in architecture and importance of applying them
Authors: Iranmanesh, Mohammad; Mahmoodi, Morteza ; Abna, Hourieh ; Abna, Parisa
Currently, being at the beginning of next generation of buildings, buildings with various degrees of high technology (Hi-Tech), which possess quite ecological behaviour and are capable of reacting to direct and indirect variations of their surrounding and adapting themselves with appropriate conditions by utilizing compatible materials intellectually and performing properly, are of especial importance. “Smart material” is a novel term used for materials and products which are able to perceive and process their peripheral events and react properly to them. In other words, these materials are changeable and are able to change their shape, form, colour and inner energy revocably in response to physical or chemical effects of their surrounding environment. These constructive materials show very different behaviour in compare with other common constructive materials, while common constructive materials are static due to their tendency towards resisting against constructive forces. Smart materials are dynamic as their behaviours are defined in reaction to energy fields. They can change in response to their surrounding environment in a manner in which common and non-smart materials are not able to act. The most important positive feature of these materials is in the field of energy which is one of the main topics of the coming century. Using these materials in building construction, energy consumption may be optimized. Consequently, these materials are able to regulate the increasing global demand for expensive energy resources and raw materials. Thus, considering the above-mentioned issues, the main objective of this article is to introduce the smart materials, manner and quality of their function, and, most important, their behaviour in the constructive projects and methods of applying them.