Housing for low-income in the urban fringe of Surabaya
Authors: Santosa, Happy Ratna
ABSTRACT: Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia. With the ever increasing development
in the city, the price of land is becoming very high. Inexpensive land for housing is almost impossible to
find; hence, in order to build houses for the low-income people, cheap land is now only found on the
periphery of the city. Based on this condition, the government’s housing programme for low-income
means houses can be built with government subsidies in areas where land prices are lower than those
in the inner city. The intent of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of the One Million
Housing Programme, to see how far the low-income houses could accommodate dwellers’ needs.
The discussion in this paper outlines the government’s One Million Housing Programme; explains the
condition of the houses and their inhabitants; describes how the houses were improved by the
dwellers, and identifies the impacts of the housing development on the environment. The low-income
houses included in the survey were houses built with government subsidies, houses built by the people
themselves, and houses in the slum areas. The research methods used included surveying the
government housing officials, in-depth interviews with the residents using prepared questionnaires, and
an environmental impact assessment of the area.
Results show that the new low-income housing built with government subsidies were adequate for the
residents, and the residents could improve their houses according to their own needs. Several houses
were still empty and deteriorating. However, the self-built houses were more acceptable, since they
were purpose-built to meet these people’s needs. Houses in the slum areas urgently needed
improvement. The environmental impact assessment showed that the areas surrounding the new
housing developments were improved, but sometimes conflict between new and old residents took
place because of the improper development of drainage.