Eco-services Evaluation Model (EEM): an decision-support tool for sustainable new urban development
Authors: Wang, Jieqiong; Chen, Siqing
This paper is motivated by environmental degradation which happens in China due to the intensive new urban development. Although more planning and design proposals are titled with “sustainable”, few have yet, it appears succeeded. “Design for Eco-services” is an emerging theory about sustainable urban development, in which Janis Birkeland argues that, “net positive development” can be achieved through the antidote from vicious circles to virtuous cycles by designing development to provide eco-services initially. Despite the theoretical soundness of such claims, the local and international literature shows limited understanding of how to provide eco-services through the planning and design practices of actual physical forms. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to explore a tool, supporting the decision-making of appropriate physical forms in new urban development, which can provide eco-services. Since the existing evaluation models are not suitable for urban eco-services, which are studied as per the situations of non-urban areas, a new tool, Eco-services Evaluation Model (EEM), is proposed, involving Material Flow Analysis (MFA) for abiotic eco-services, Patch-Corridor-Matrix analysis (PCM) for biotic eco-services, and Ecological Footprint Analysis (EF) for overall performance and preventing “rebound effect”. It can cover the evaluation of individual key eco-service and the entire performance of all of those.